switchdesk change gui
startx -- :1 or -- :2 start a new X-Server on the next vt (execute the command in a console and not from KDE)



netstat -a show ports
netstat -rn show routingtabelle
ifconfig network configuration

ssh -l username server
scp server1:/path server2:/path copy file from server1 to server2

/etc/hosts contains ip adresse

wget -ckxpF -erobots=off -rl0 -P download http://server.org/file.html ; zip -qr9 download.zip download ; rm -rf download

download website and save it to the zipfile download.zip

wget options:
c: Continue getting a partially-downloaded file
k: After the download is complete, convert the links in the document to make them suitable for local viewing.
x: force directories. E.g. "wget -x http://server.org/file.txt" will save the downloaded file to "server.org/file.txt"
p: page requisites. This option causes Wget to download all the files that are necessary to properly display a given HTML page (images, sounds, stylesheets).
r: Turn on recursive retrieving
erobots=off : Make Wget ignore the robots.txt file
l depth: Specify recursion maximum depth level depth
P prefix: The directory prefix is the directory where all other files and subdirectories will be saved to
F: When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML file

zip options:
q: Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment prompts.
r: Travel the directory structure recursively
9: slowest but optimal compression method

rm options:
r: delete recursive content of folder
f: force, don't ask

linklint -concise_url -http -host www.server.org -limit 1000 -doc dir /subdir1/subdir2/@
Checks remote HTML links of "www.server.org/subdir1/subdir2/" write the output to the folder "dir". The file "dir/errorX.txt" contains the missing files.

Package Managment

rpm -Uhv filename.rpm install rpm package

tar -czf endfile.tar.gz files create a archive
tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz extract archive
tar -tzf libXpm-4.7.tar.gz |less show contents of archive
split -b 1400k filename splits file
for i in x??; do cat $;>>filename; done /td> concate files to filename
zip -r9q archive.zip fileFolder1 fileFolder2 create archive (r(ecusive); 9=best compresion, q(uite))

apt-setup configure the source-lists of apt-get
apt-get install packagename installs a package
apt-get remove packagename deinstalla a package
apt-get update update your packagelist
apt-cache search packagename search for package in the pagakelist
apt-get dist-upgrade brings Debian GNU/Linux uptodate
apt-get -t stable dist-upgrade brings Debian GNU/Linux uptodate (only files from stable and not unstable if you have multiply sources)
apt-get upgrade same like "apt-get dist-upgrade", updates only the important system files
dpkg -L packagename print the filelist of a installed package

apt-get update
apt-get -qq --print-uris dist-upgrade > uris.txt
apt-get -qq --print-uris install PakageName > uris.txt
awk '{print "wget -O " $2 " " $1}' < uris.txt > wget-script

transfer "wget-script" to server
./wget-script >>log.txt 2> &1 &
move files to medium

apt-get -o dir::cache::archives="/medium/" dist-upgrade
apt-get -o dir::cache::archives="/medium/" install PakageName
use apt offline to update Debian
create in "/medium/" an empty folder "partial"
the pakage files are stored in /var/lib/apt/lists/


lsmod show loaded kernel module
modprobe module high level handling of loadable modules
lsmod module list loaded modules
insmod module.o Install loadable kernel module
dmesg print or control the kernel ring buffer (verify the kernel module has been loaded)
rmmod module unload the kernel module


fs sa . www_rzuser write give "www_rzuser" write permissions
fs sa . system:anyuser read
recode ibmpc:latin1 skript.pl change encoding

Convert files

lynx -dump file.html > file.txt
w3m -dump file.html > file.txt
html2text -o file.txt file.html
convert html to txt
html2ps file.html > file.ps convert html to postscript
a2ps file.txt -o file.ps convert txt to postscript
psnup -4 -f inputfile.ps outputfile.ps set 4 slides onto one a4 paper for printing
ps2ascii file.ps file.txt convert postscript to txt
txt2gif -t "This is a gif" > file.gif convert txt to gif
word2x file.doc convert MS Word document to text
pdflatex file.tex convert LaTex document to pdf
man -Thtml Command > Command.html convert a man of Command to html
tidy -m filname.html Clean up webpage filname.html with HTML TIDY
formail -D 10000 idcache -s < mboxWithDupes.mbox > mboxclean.mbox delete duplicates in mbox file (adjust the 10000 number to limit the number of unique Message IDs stored in idcache)


$:~/iso> md5sum -c file.iso.md5 check if the iso image and md5 in folder iso are correct
$:~/iso> md5sum file.iso check if the iso image and md5 in folder iso are correct


mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy -t msdos mount floppy
umount /dev/fd0 umount floppy
cat /dev/fd0 > bootdisk creates a diskimage in the file bootdisk
cat bootdisk > /dev/fd0 copy the diskimage to the floppy
mount -o loop -t iso9660 /path/to/cd.iso /mnt/image mount cd image "cd.iso" to the folder "/mnt/image"
mount -o remount,rw /mnt/hda1 remount already mounted device "/mnt/hda1" with read write permission

chmod u+rwx filename change file wright's (u(ser); g(roup); a(ll))
touch filename creates a file
ln -s filename linkname create symbolic link
du -s filenames show how much space is used by files
more /pro/cpuinfo find out cpuinfo
xset b off put the speaker off in the console
find /home/user/ |xargs grep -il phrase |less print all files which contain phrase (i=ignore small big letters; l= only print filenmaes)
xalan -VALIDATE -IN gruss.xml -XSL gruss.xsl -OUT gruss.html convert xml file with repect to a xsl file to a html file